Mortality and morbidity were remarkably low in the light of the lava flow hazard. While there may be genuine and well-founded fears around cash aid, there is only one real conclusion to be drawn: Lava spurted as high as m into the air along a fracture zone that cut through the central crater. Emergency health measures include the provision of chlorinated water along evacuation routes and in refuge areas, and adequate medical cover for the treatment of cholera and other enteric diseases. The largest was Itig camp near the airport, containing around people, where the houses were made from recycled galvanized metal sheets collected from the lava flow debris Fig. Provided logistics support WFP:

While there may be genuine and well-founded fears around cash aid, there is only one real conclusion to be drawn: Nyiragongo previously erupted in , when lava flow covered 20 square km, destroyed houses and 10 km of road, and reportedly killed up to people. More pumping stations are needed in case the two existing ones are damaged by lava flows. Since , two and a half million people have died in the Eastern DCR Democratic Republic of Congo from infectious diseases and malnutrition as a consequence of continuing conflict in the region. The Nyiragongo lavas that form the hard and porous bedrock of the area, with the setting of Lake Kivu, also constrain the other main hazard that overshadows Goma – cholera – as will be discussed below. Human, geomorphological and infrastructural vulnerability will combined or separately increase the danger from cholera and other lethal infectious diseases, if the population does evacuate, or subsequently returns prematurely to a shattered city without the means available of chlorinating water from Lake Kivu. These relate to the unusual volcanic setting, the humanitarian crisis which ranks amongst the world’s gravest, and the long shadow cast by the events surrounding the genocide and the Rwandan refugee tragedy in Goma in , when tens of thousands of people died from cholera and dysentery.

Human health and vulnerability in the Nyiragongo volcano crisis DR Congo Jun 2002

An unknown, but probably important, number of the diarrhoeal cases were cholera. By 21 January, most of these people had returned to Goma, with approximately 30, persons left scattered in the Goma area and in two camps in Rwanda19 felt earthquakes continued for days afterwards, a reminder that the volcanic activity might not be over, but the eruption had officially ceased on 18 January, though for several days afterwards lava continued to flow into Lake Kivu at the delta created by the main lava flow.


The challenges to the scientists were to rapidly establish the hazards of the lava flows and their associated eruptive phenomena in such a densely populated area.

On 12 Julya thin ash plume rising to about m above the volcano was observed. Humanitarian response in the occupied Palestinian territory: The lava from high up travelled with velocity of tens of kilometres per hour and solidified to a depth of cm, though marks on trees indicate that it flowed to a depth of 1. The ever-present threat of violence also reduces the physical and mental reserves of the population in overcoming natural hazards.

Volcanic Eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo

These and subsequent events have been reported and debated in the medical literature and a discussion of the issues involved is necessary here as they are highly relevant to the volcanic risk assessment. New pits had to be dug to take the effluent, and these were often rudimentary.

In July around one million Rwandan refugees fled into North Kivu from the ethnic violence and civil disturbance in Rwanda in which , civilians, mostly ethnic Tutsis, died. For the local people, as Tazieff learned, the volcano was a resting place for the souls of their ancestors. The Rwandans did not African Rift Valley welcome them and gangs threatened the refugees unless they returned home. Political vulnerability, which includes the humanitarian crisis, will profoundly affect how the people regard warnings about impending eruptions and their beliefs in taking actions such as evacuation to protect themselves.

The search for truth: However, weekly meetings with the Governor have been instigated, as have regular slots for the GVO volcanologists on Radio Okapi. The risks of moving the population out of Goma to reduce the loss of life in an eruption have to be balanced against the risks to life from infectious disease, malnutrition and violence that are likely to accompany a mass exodus.

mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 case study

A survey at two houses whose gardens adjoined the water showed potentially lethal levels of carbon dioxide at the water surface where people swam. In many parts of the world the natural environment presents hazards to people.

mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 case study

Eight atudy agencies based in Gisenyi sinceincluding MSF and MERLIN, were in a position to respond, making available rehydration facilities at transit centres and way stations along the route. This report is a contribution for health sector preparedness and the involvement of the health sector in the on-going risk management of this crisis. The rise in the lava lake level increased the risk of a flow breaking out down one of the flanks as in Location Maps – Country maps for your reports and presentations.


The mechanism for the release of lava in the eruption was more clearly a drainage phenomenon, with radial fissuring around the 0202 crater and a high level of very fluid lava in the lake. Interviews were held with local officials, the staff of the city’s utilities, and workers for NGO’s and international agencies in Goma.

Mount Nyiragongo 2002 eruption case study

On January 18, U. Episodic lava-lake filling at Nyiragongo began on 23 June, the first such sruption since when the lake first refilled after the eruption.

mount nyiragongo eruption 2002 case study

Another outbreak of diarrhoeal disease occurred, but in striking contrast to the catastrophe, the numbers of deaths in eruptiob mass movement from non-violent causes was very low, although precise numbers could not be estimated. However, a planned degassing of Lake Kivu would be an important undertaking to consider in the light of the successful first attempt at degassing Lake Nyos, Cameroon, by an international team of experts led by Halbwachs this began in March and ran successfully until January when it developed a fault – further funding is awaited to enable this to be rectified.

Following further conflict, from Nov, nearly half a million Rwandan returnees from the five Goma camps entered Rwanda through Gisenyi on their way back to their communes. Between 1 and 16 August, patients with suspected meningitis efuption reported, eduption Group A, the commonest outbreak strain in this African region.

The observations of intense post-eruptive seismicity and widespread ground subsidence in the Kivu rift, together with both the sstudy of the eruption with volcano fracturing over 20 km.

The Impacts of the Nyiragongo Eruption by Elsie Linley on Prezi

A destabilization of the waters of Lake Kivu in such an eruption could lead to a massive out-pouring of the gases carbon dioxide and methane that lie stored deep in the lake. The most likely scenario considered during the course of contingency planning for volcanic and seismic activity is catastrophic seismic activity producing lava flows very near to, or within Goma town, Gisenyi town, or Lake Kivu. Family kits, providing household items, were important and greatly needed, but everything in the kit could be bought in Goma.

Why humanitarian assistance is not a long-term solution in the OPT.