All things in space forming the world, and there being but one space, several worlds external to each other become impossible. They have universality evident as far as observed, but neither necessity, except as far as the laws of nature may be established, nor precision, except what is arbitrarily made. The first inane fiction of the reason, imagining true infinite relation without any mutually related things, pertains to the world of fable. Moral philosophy , then, inasmuch as supplying the first principles of judgment , is not cognized except by pure intellect, and itself belongs to pure philosophy, and Epicurus reducing its criteria to deduction from the sense of pleasure or pain is rightly reprehended, together with some moderns following him a certain distance from afar, as Shaftesbury and his adherents. All communion, then, of the substance of the universe is eternally established by the common cause of all, and either established generally by physical influence—as amended; see paragraph 17—or adapted particularly to their states; and the latter either rests originally in the primary constitution of every substance or is impressed on the occasion of any change whatever; the first being called pre-established harmony , the latter occasionalism.

Hence, according to the laws of the human mind, the intuition of nothing is given except as contained in space and time. For the same reason we take care to shut out from the exposition of phenomena comparative miracles , namely, the influence of spirits, since, as we do not know their nature, the intellect, to its great detriment, would be turned aside from the light of experience, by which alone it is able to provide for itself laws of judging, into the night of species and causes unknown to us. Since, therefore, nothing at all can be given the senses except conformably to the primary axioms of space and their consequences which are taught by geometry, though their principle be but subjective, yet the soul will necessarily agree with them, since to this extent it agrees with itself; and the laws of sensuality will be the laws of nature so far as it can be perceived by our senses. But since we cannot attain by any mental striving, even fictitiously, to any other intuition but that according to the form of space and time, it happens that we deem all intuition whatever impossible which is not bound by these laws, passing by the pure intellectual intuition exempt from the laws of the senses, such as the divine, by Plato called the Idea, and hence subject all possible given things to the sensual axioms of space and time. But the world regarded as phenomenon, that is, in respect to the sensibility of the human mind, acknowledges no principle of form but a subjective one, that is, a certain mental law by which it is necessary that all things qualified for being objects of the senses would seem to pertain necessarily to the same whole. Kant does alludes to a mathematical proof of the continuity of space at ID 2: Rather than leave aught unexpounded, they have satisfied themselves with hypotheses, which in fact have delayed the discovery of truth.


In the same way, to the argument of the intellectproving that a substantial composite summay given so are the elements of composition, that is, the simple things, there is adjoined a supposititious one suborned from sensual knowledge, namely, that in such a composite there is not given an infinite regress in the composition of the parts, that is to say, that in any composite there is given a definite number of parts, a sense certainly not germane to the former, and hence substituted rashly for it.

Leibnitz, the inventor of the Dif- ferential Calculus, was not less eminent as a mathematician than as a metaphysician. For they are called sensuous on account of their originnot of their collation by identity and opposition.

Kant’s Inaugural Dissertation of 1770

For a and not-a are not repugnant unless thought of the same thing simultaneouslythat is, at the same time; they may belong to the same thing after each other, at different times. They are acts of pure thought.

kants inaugural dissertation summary

Number is a presentation com- prising the successive addition of homogeneous units. One is a little inaugugal, there- fore, whether the universality of the phenomenon is quite sufficiently recognized by Windelband’s attempt to narrow down the origin of the Dissertation to one work of Leibnitz.

This, however, tacitly deviates wummary an objective condition, as though in its absence there were no room for contingence; which being done, a counterfeit and erroneous axiom arises. Paragraph 18 A whole from necessary siibstances is impossible. They who hold this disquisition superfluous jnaugural confuted by the concepts of space and time, conditions, as it were, given by their very own selves and primitive, by whose aid, that is to say, without any other principle, it is not only possible but necessary for several actual things to be regarded as reciprocally parts constituting a whole.

All these difficulties upon proper insight into the notion of time vanish like smoke. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. The significance of this is that the continuity infinite divisibility of segment ab constitutes an actual complete, given infinity: For here the disagreement between the sensuous and the intellectual faculties, whose natures I shall presently explain, indicates nothing except that the abstract ideas which the mind has received from the intellect can often not be followed out in the concrete and converted into intuitions.

Hence, the unity in the conjunction of the substances of the zmiverse is the consequence of the dependence of all on one. But according to the laws of intuitive cognition this is not done, that is, all composition is not removed, except by a regress from the given whole to any possible parts whatsoever — in other words, by an analysis again resting rissertation the condition of time.


Garnett – – Philosophical Review 46 4: Seung – – Johns Hopkins University Press. The first class includes the common sense con- troverters of Hume, described thus: The primary philosophy containing the principles of the kabts of pure intellect is metaphysics.

kants inaugural dissertation summary

For two moments being given, time is not given, except as in them actualities succeed each other; hence, beside the given moment it is necessary that time be given in the latter part of which there is another moment.

Kant’s Inaugural Dissertation of For the soul IS not in communion with the body as being detained in a certain place in the latter, but a determined place in the universe is attributed to it, for the reason that it is in mutual commerce with some body, which commerce being dissolved all its position in space is removed.

kants inaugural dissertation summary

In other words, we have nu- merically one. To this class belongs the threadbare one of the schools: As to high towers and the metaphysically great men resembling them, there is usually about them much wind. This entry has no external links. As for the latter spurious axiow, it originates from a rash conversion of the principle of contradiction.

The celebrated Kastner, calling in question this Leibnitzian law,’ calls on its defenders to demonstrate that the continu- ous motion of a point around the sides of a triangle is impos- sible, it being necessary to prove this diswertation the law of continuity be granted.

Finally, none but the intellectually blind can fail to see the coming of a profound resurgence of religious force. The concepts of continuity and infinity go beyond what can be exhibited in intuition.

William J. Eckoff, Kant’s Inaugural Dissertation of – PhilPapers

And if we must have a revolutionary program, what safer, since of the nature of the Social Contract it must be — what especially safer for us, whose independence as a nation is a vindication of Locke, the Rousseauist before Rousseau — than the sublimated Rousseauism of Kant? For this reason it is not strange if some things should seem to have been asserted with more audacity than truth, they certainly calling, when a broader treatment shall be possible, for greater force of arguments.

In other languages Add links. The project of the Critique of Pure Reason.